Julius Caesar - Wikipedia


julius caesar literature

The action begins in February 44 BC. Julius Caesar has just reentered Rome in triumph after a victory in Spain over the sons of his old enemy, Pompey the Great. A spontaneous celebration has interrupted and been broken up by Flavius and Marullus, two political enemies of Caesar. It soon becomes. Gaius Julius Caesar ( BC – 44 BC), one of the most influential men in world history, has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works since ancient times. Ancient literary works. The ancient Roman busts of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra in the Altes Museum, Berlin. Caesar is . The Julius Caesar in Literature chapter of this Julius Caesar: Help & Review course is the simplest way to master literature about Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare - Read Online - The Literature Page

He also wrote Latin prose. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senateamong them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine Riverwhen he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain.

Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to Britain and past Gaul. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome, julius caesar literature. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, julius caesar literature, including the creation of the Julian calendar, julius caesar literature.

He gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated julius caesar literature reform and support for veterans.

He centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed " dictator for life " Latin: " dictator perpetuo "giving him additional authority. His populist and julius caesar literature reforms angered the elites, who began to conspire against him.

Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustusrose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, julius caesar literature, and the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust.

The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. He has julius caesar literature appeared in literary and artistic worksand his political philosophy, known as Caesarisminspired politicians into the modern era.

Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Juliawhich claimed descent from Iulusson of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneassupposedly the son of the goddess Venus. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families.

Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes julius caesar literature the early julius caesar literature century BC. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died suddenly, [20] so Caesar was the head of the family at His coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla.

Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy, julius caesar literature. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis high priest of Jupiter[21] and he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia.

Following Sulla's final victory, though, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, julius caesar literature wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. Sulla gave in reluctantly and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. Caesar felt that it would be much julius caesar literature far away from Sulla should the Dictator change his mind, julius caesar literature, so he left Rome and joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia.

He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the Siege of Mytilene. He went on a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes 's fleet, but he spent so long at Nicomedes' court that rumours arose of an affair with the king, which Caesar vehemently denied for the rest of his life.

He lacked means since his inheritance was confiscated, but he acquired a modest house in Suburaa lower-class neighbourhood of Rome. On the way across the Aegean Sea[28] Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held prisoner. The pirates demanded a ransom of 20 talents of silver, but he insisted that they ask for He had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity julius caesar literature —a promise that the pirates had taken as a joke.

As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from the east, julius caesar literature.

On his return to Rome, he was elected military tribunea first step in a political career. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC, [35] and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Juliaand included images of her husband Marius in the funeral procession, unseen since the days of Sulla.

His wife Cornelia also died that year. On his return in 67 BC, [38] he married Pompeiaa granddaughter of Sulla, whom he later divorced in 61 BC after her embroilment in the Bona Dea scandal. In 63 BC, he ran julius caesar literature election to the post of Pontifex Maximuschief priest of the Roman state religion. He ran against two powerful senators.

Accusations of bribery were made by all sides. Caesar won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing. After serving as praetor in 62 BC, Caesar was appointed to govern Hispania Ulterior the western part of the Iberian Peninsula as propraetor[43] [44] [45] though some sources suggest that he held proconsular powers. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassusone of Rome's richest men.

Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others, in return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey. Even so, julius caesar literature, to avoid becoming a private citizen and thus open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Spain, julius caesar literature, he conquered two local tribes and was hailed as imperator by his troops; he reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem.

In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. After an especially great victory, army troops in the field would proclaim their commander imperatoran acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph.

However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and julius caesar literature outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen.

He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentiabut Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. The election was sordid — even Catowith his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favour of one of Caesar's opponents.

Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus. Caesar was already in Crassus ' political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them.

The three of them had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate "rule of three men"was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia. Caesar proposed a law for redistributing public lands to the poor—by force of arms, if need be—a proposal supported by Pompey and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which julius caesar literature the triumvirate's opponents.

Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but he was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. His lictors had their fasces broken, two high magistrates accompanying him were wounded, and he had a julius caesar literature of excrement thrown over him. In fear julius caesar literature his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts proved ineffective in obstructing Caesar's legislation.

Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar. When Julius caesar literature was first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit his future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than the governorship of a province, as his military command duty after his year in office was over.

Julius caesar literature term of his governorship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one. Caesar was still deeply in debt, but there was money to be made as a governor, whether by extortion [57] or by military adventurism. Caesar had four legions under his command, two julius caesar literature his provinces bordered on unconquered territory, and parts of Gaul were known to be unstable.

Some of Rome's Gallic allies had been defeated by their rivals at the Battle of Magetobrigajulius caesar literature, with the help of a contingent of Germanic tribes.

The Romans feared these tribes were preparing to migrate south, julius caesar literature, closer to Italy, and that they had warlike intent. Caesar raised two new legions and defeated these tribes. In response to Caesar's earlier activities, the tribes in the north-east began to arm themselves, julius caesar literature. Caesar treated this as an aggressive move and, after an inconclusive engagement against the united tribes, he conquered the tribes piecemeal.

Meanwhile, one of his legions began the conquest of the tribes in the far north, directly opposite Britain. The Lucca Conference renewed the First Triumvirate and extended Caesar's governorship for another five years. In 55 BC, Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge.

Late that summer, having subdued two other tribes, he crossed into Britainclaiming that the Britons had aided one of his enemies the previous year, possibly the Veneti of Brittany.

He advanced inland, and established a few alliances. However, julius caesar literature, poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, which forced Caesar to leave Britain for the last time. While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to re-secure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece in marriage, but Pompey declined.

In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of the east. Rome was on the brink of civil war. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married the daughter of a political opponent of Caesar. The Triumvirate was dead.

Though the Gallic tribes were just as strong as the Romans militarily, the internal division among the Gauls guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar.

Vercingetorix 's attempt in 52 BC to unite them against Roman invasion came too late. In 50 BC, the Senate led by Pompey ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. Upon crossing the RubiconCaesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander julius caesar literature, in Greek, " the die is cast ". Pompey, despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, did not intend to fight.

Caesar pursued Pompey, hoping to capture Pompey before his legions could escape. Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could capture him.


Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare: Act 1 Scene 1 - The Literature Page


julius caesar literature


The Julius Caesar in Literature chapter of this Julius Caesar: Help & Review course is the simplest way to master literature about Julius Caesar. William Shakespeare: Julius Caesar Table of Contents. Julius Caesar (Play, , 77 pages) This title is not on Your Bookshelf. [Add to Shelf] (0 / 10 books on shelf) 0. Introduction. ACT I. 1. SCENE I. Rome. A street. 2. SCENE II. The same. A public place. 3. SCENE III. The same. A street. Shakespeare’s account of the Roman general Julius Caesar’s murder by his friend Brutus is a meditation on duty. First performed around , when the English royal succession was uncertain, Julius Caesar confronts the dangers of political turmoil. Read a character analysis of Brutus, plot summary, and important quotes.